Rhodes deporteesThe implementation of the anti-Jewish laws in September 1938 by the Italian Governor caused great alarm and hardship to the Jewish community. This resulted in a swift exodus of over 2,000 Jews from Rhodes which prior to then had a population of 4,000.

Italy, as an ally of Germany during World War II, allowed the Germans to share control over the Island of Rhodes. In September 1943, the Italian military surrendered full control of Rhodes to the Germans.

On July 18, 1944 the male Jews of Rhodes, age 16 and older, were ordered by the German military commanders to appear the following morning with their identity cards and work permits at the Air Force Command Center. The tactic of requiring the work permits tricked the Jews into thinking they were summoned to be sent for a work camp. The next morning after the Jewish men were assembled they were brutalized and threatened by the German soldiers who proceeded to take away the identity cards and work permits and herded the Jews into the basement of the building.

On July 19th, the remaining Jewish women and children were also ordered to appear the following day with their valuables under a threat of death. They had no choice but to obey, and once entrapped, their belongings were stripped away.

On July 23rd, the 1,673 Jews were ordered to march to the port where they boarded onto three crowded boats. On that sad day, a centuries old Jewish community had ceased to exist.

The crossing from Rhodes to the mainland of Greece lasted eight days and was horrendous. Seven people died during the trip. The trip had one stop at the Island of Leros, where they were joined by another small cargo boat carrying about a hundred Jews from the Island of Kos. Like the people from Rhodes, they had also been herded onto the boat after being stripped of all their valuables and their identity papers.

After landing in Piraeus (Athens) and staying at the Haidari concentration camp, they were forced onto trains to Auschwitz where most of them were murdered. There were approximately 150 survivors.

The following list of Jews deported from Rhodes by the Germans during the Second World War and is from the Italian book by Liliana Picciotto Fargion called “Il Libro della Memoria”.  The format of arranging the names and biographical data was designed and translated by John Holcenberg, the husband of Esther Rousso of Seattle (daughter of Nissim Rousso and Victoria Angel).  Please note that married women are listed by their maiden name.

Click on this for a list of Rhodes & Cos deportees

Articles in the newspaper “Il Messaggero di Rodi” on July 16, 1944 and July 23, 1944:

July 16, 1944 article  July 23, 1944 article

The following are images relating to the Holocaust:


1939 photo of Albert Almeleh (17 years old) at left, and Nissim (Nace) Treves (16 years old) at right, on the ship which took them to Africa. Both of them fled Rhodes shortly after the anti-Jewish laws were instituted by the Italian fascist government. Photo from Nissim (Nace) Treves.


May 1939 photos of a boat that stopped in Rhodes en route to Palestine from Prague and Braslava carrying about 600 Jews. In Rhodes several young Rhodeslis joined the refugees. But before the vessel had traveled far from Rhodes a fire broke out on board. The passengers safely reached the Island of Samos, and returned back to Rhodes. The Eastern European Jews were allowed to sleep in the stadium. In a short time, the Rhodes Jewish community managed to obtain another ship and the refugees sailed for Palestine.


1943 photo of a young Rhodian Jewish boy, of the Angel family, wearing the Star of David on the lapel of his coat. The Jews of Rhodes were not required to wear the Star. For the photo he is wearing the star as an innocent gesture of pride, instead of its actual use as a symbol for persecution. Tragically, the boy was deported the following year to Auschwitz, where he was murdered along with about 1,500 Jews of Rhodes. Photo from Miru Alcana.


April 1944 wedding photo of Yosef Levy and Dona Habif. One month later the Nazis deported them to the Auschwitz concentration camp where they died. Photo from Miru Alcana.


German tanks outside the Marine Gate in 1944. Photo from Jo Mallel.


July 1944: the Jews of Rhodes were detained at the Air Force Command center located just outside the Old City near the Gate of Amboise. The Jews were held there for 3 days prior to their deportation to Auschwitz.


June 1945 photo in Bologna, Italy of 6 young Rhodian Jewish women survivors of the concentration camps. They were liberated one month earlier and traveled by train to Italy. There they met at a military barracks with British soldiers of the Jewish Brigade from Palestine (note the Star of David on the door of the truck). Standing in the front row, left to right: Susana Levy, Lucia Franco, soldier and Renee Levi. Standing in the second row, left to right: Rebecca Capelouto, Alice Tarica and Stella Levi. Photo from Stella Levi.


1946 photo of ten young Rhodesli men survivors of the Nazi concentration camps. The photo was taken in Ostia, Italy (near Rome) where the refugees lived in temporary housing. (The Rhodesli women were housed in a shelter in Rome.) Left to right: Alberto Levy, Jack Hasson, Victor Hasson, Samuel Modiano, Eliezer Sourmani, Pepo Cordoval, Jack Cordoval, Joseph Cone, Ner Alhadeff and Joseph Hasson. Photo from Joseph Natan Hasson.


1946 photo of the President of the Jewish Community, Elia Soriano, laying a wreath at the fountain in “La Juderia” in memory of the Jewish victims of the Holocaust. Photo from Elie Jacob Soriano.

Saving Jewish Lives From Auschwitz and the Holocaust

The following is an article by Aron Hasson from the 2005 “Ke Haber?” newsletter, page 11

There were 42 Jews who were originally detained, but released prior to their deportation due to the courageous acts of the Turkish Consulate General of Rhodes, Selahattin Ulkumen.  He has been honored by several organizations, including the B’nai B’rith, the Anti Defamation League as well as by Yad Vashem in Jerusalem which awarded him the “Righteous Among the Nations” in 1990 with a tree planting ceremony.

On July 18, 1944, the Germans began ordering all of the Jews of Rhodes to appear with their identity cards and work permits at the Air Force Command Center in the new section of the city.  On July 20th, the Consul General in Rhodes for Turkey, Selahattin Ulkumen went to the office of the German Commanders demanding the release of the Jews of Turkish nationality that were being detained.  He cited various treaties and neutrality agreements between Turkey and Germany, and reluctantly the Germans released the 42 Jews.

All of the other Jews were detained for one more day until they were crowded onto three small freight ships and deported to Auschwitz.  Of the 1,676 Jews deported, they were all murdered except for 151 who survived.

As written by Hizkia Franco in his book, The Jewish Martyrs of Rhodes and Cos, “Selahattin, the Consul General of Turkey, intervened to protect his nationals.  He managed to obtain their release, along with the families, even in the case of marriages of women of Turkish origin to Jews of the Dodecanese”.

One of the Jews of Turkish nationality, Maurice Soriano, said in an interview several years later, “I owe my life to this Turkish Consul who showed enormous strength to save his citizens’ lives.”

Although the 42 Jews of Turkish nationality were not deported, they were still threatened and were required to appear at 8 a.m. daily at the German Command Center.  The Daniel Touriel family, who moved to the United States after the War, described the following:  “Every morning, at 8 a.m. we had to be present for a roll-call at the Gestapo.  Sometimes, without any given reason we were detained for 1 to 2 hours.  Those hours were nightmares for us.  Besides being in fear of being sent to a concentration camp, we were terrified of losing our lives under the continuous bombings of the Island since we were refused to be in bomb-shelters.“

In a later newspaper interview, Selahattin Ulkumen stated:  “All I did was carry out my duty as a human being”.

Leave a Comment

19 Responses to “Holocaust”

  1. December 31st, 2017

    Vanessa Menasce:

    Thank you so much for all the details. I am the granddaughter of Josef Menasce and Vida Franco, who left Rhodes in February 1940 for the Belgian Congo. They unfortunately had to leave behind Vida’s mother, Fasana Menasce (married name Franco), daughter of Leah Tarica and Eliau Menasce; as she was too old for the long boat trip to Africa.
    I have noted her name on the list of the deportees; although some of her details are missing: is there a way of adding the missing details on the list?
    As for how and when she died, I do not have details – as per the stories I have heard, she might have died on the boat.

  2. October 29th, 2017

    Anthony Romano:

    Thank you Aron for the information although tragic and so sad

    I am also searching to find out if any of my grandmother’s family was killed by Nazis. My grandmother was Sara Betton and her father Benzion Betton (not certain of spelling), Benzion came to the US around 1910-20 then sent for his wife (I dont know her name and would like to) and two daughters (Sara and Bolie). I wanted to know if they had any family still in Rhodes when the Nazis deported and murdered our people.

  3. October 29th, 2017


    Anthony. Unfortunately they were not on the list of 42 people. This family was originally from Bodrum and the nearby island of Kos. The date you referred to was the date they were murdered in Auschwitz. I will email you more detailed information regarding: Jacob Romano, Marie Cadranel, Matilde Mazaltov Romano, Morris Haim Romano and Behora Mazaltov Ganon.

  4. October 29th, 2017

    Anthony Romano:

    My great grandmother Behora Ganon (married name Romano) and my great aunt Hanula Romano (married name Levi) were Turkish citizens I believe and I wanted to know if they were in the 42 who were released from detention. The list of deportees above list both and has this date 16/08/1944 as what happened to them — not sure if that is their murder date or something else. Please help

  5. October 9th, 2017


    Hi Rosina. I will send to your email address a 1938 family registration from Rhodes of the Isaac Hazan family. It indicates they lived at #61 Via della Castellania. Also in the home lived: Rosa Azicri, Giacomo Hazan and Rebecca Hazan. It also indicates that the parents of Isaac was Giacobbe Hazan and Caden Notrica. The parents of Rosa were Abramo Azicri and Esther Haim. Let me know if you would like the same type of family registration of the Moshe Franco and Mathilde Galante side of your family.

    I am also emailing you a copy of the deportation record of the Hazan family.

    If you would like a free copy of our “Rhodesli Jewish Calendar” just inform me of your street mailing address.

  6. October 8th, 2017

    Rosina Engel-Franco:

    My mom Rebecca Hazan (her mom Rosina Azicri, her father Isacco Hazan) who were born in Izmir and moved to Rhodes with her family was one of the Auschwitz survivors. She married my dad, Ghedalia Franco (son of Moshe Franco & Mathilde Galante) who escaped the Holocaust because he had moved to Congo (Kinshasa) where I was born. My mom is now 95 years old and has 2 other daughters, 7 grandchildren and 13 great grandchildren, a victory over the Nazis who wanted to annihilate the Jews.
    I was very excited and moved to discover this websie and see some photos of my great grandfather who was a rabbi and some photos of some relatives and friends of my parents.
    I am planning to visit the museum sometimes in February

  7. September 26th, 2017


    Hi Ruth. I’m emailing to you a 1938 family registration page of Behor Habib (of Gallipoli) & Reina Hasson. It indicates that Behor’s parents were Hasdai Habib & Lea Mezitrano. It also states that Regina’s parents were Moreno Hasson & Rebecca Menashe. They married on January 2, 1917. It also states that they lived at #16 Via Maggio in the Jewish Quarter. The other document provides a few sad details of their deportation to Auschwitz and death.

  8. September 24th, 2017

    Ruth Rubinstein:

    Hello, I would appreciate getting information on my uncle Behor Habib and his wife Reina and their three children (Lea, Victor and Leon) that were killed in Auschwitz. Could you email me to… (email address removed by aron to ensure privacy). thank you

  9. March 10th, 2017

    tom klein:

    could you please add a small bit of information to the deportees, Allegra, Rachel, Isacco, Matilde, Nissim, and Sol, the children of Jeuda Leon. he was my wife’s grandfather, and his wife’s name was Jamilla Piha. if you could please add her name as their mother. (she died before the deportation.)

    thank you.

  10. December 12th, 2016

    ROSSI avraham:

    i am born in Tunis, My father in egypt (cairo) and my grandmother wife of albert Rossi was Maria Soriano from Rhodes.
    I would like to meet my relatives. I live in Corsica; I you know some information about these Soriano pleasz mail me
    my mail: albert2a@hotmail.com
    Albert Rossi

  11. April 2nd, 2015

    Joseph Elkana:

    Miru Alcana is my relative. I met her before she past away few years ago. Both of her brothers escaped to turkey. 1 of the brothers is my grandpa. my family shared their story how they escaped rhodes and they met miru again in Israel. This is my family.

  12. March 8th, 2014

    Jo Mallel:

    WILL BE IN RHODIS FROM 16 to 30 July 2014.

  13. October 10th, 2011

    Yoni Tidi:

    Today in Seattle Washington Joseph Natan Hasson was laid to rest. I was proud to shake his hand every Shabbat at Ezra Bessaroth a Rhodesli synagogue located in Seattle. He was a hero of mine.

  14. November 10th, 2010

    Moises Hernandez-Amateau:

    Dear Ladies and Gentlemen: The Friday evening Shabbat service of November 12, 2010, at Temple Beth Shalom in San Juan, Puerto Rico will be a rededication of the congregation’s Holocaust Torah, linking it to the destroyed Jewish community of Jihlava, in the former state of Checoslovakia.

    The evening’s program will include a listing of Holocaust victims related to our members. To commemorate the adoption of the town of Jihlava as the symbolic home of our Holocaust Torah, a richly detailed history of the Jewish community of Jihlava from the 14th century to its destruction during the Holocaust years, as well as the story of how the scroll came to our congregation, is to be published.

    The book will feature photographs of the rabbis and members of TBSPR holding the Torah, participating in its unwinding on Simhat Torah and reading from the scroll. The names of family members lost in the Shoa will also be listed. A copy of this monograph will be placed in the temple library.

    Please send a list of our Rhodesli martyrs to my email for timely inclusion in this project.

    Moisés Hernández Amateau (Amato)

  15. July 12th, 2010

    Suzan Hickey:

    My mother’s maiden name was Cordova, her father was from Rhodes. Is the name Cordoval the same family? I can’t wait to travel to Rhodes, it is great to know where my people came from.

  16. April 7th, 2010

    Naomi Herman:

    I am so glad I found your new website. It is really, really nice and so informative. When I look through the portraits I am saddened, yet so proud of the courage of the Jewish population of Rhodes. May our Lord bless you and your progeny. May all of their souls rest in peace.

    The design of your website, with the additional informaiton is fabulous – as are the recipes – simply great!! Congratulations and thank you! Shalom.

  17. February 13th, 2010

    vida rotman hasson:

    ego vida hasson baba mo ene davia hasson babato selomo

  18. February 11th, 2010


    Dear Avram. I will forward his contact information to you in a separate email.

  19. February 10th, 2010

    Avram Habib:

    My uncle Bohor Habib and his family was deported from Rhodes. No one survived. The pictures of the survivors are very moving. Many years ago I met Jo (Peppo) Malel in Rhodes by chance. Could you tell me if he is still alive and how I can get in touch with him. I know he lived in Italy. I have some information to ask him. (I am the son of Vitali Habib and he knew my father). Thank you. Avram Habib (Hayli)